It can cause brain damage to animals, through malfunctioning of the hypothalamus, and damage to the nervous system. However, under certain circumstances it may release toxic hydrogen sulphide and/or sulphur dioxide gas. Sulphur is not listed as a carcinogen by OSHA, NTP, IARC or ACGIH (see Toxicological Information, Section 11). Collagen is what keeps skin supple and elastic as well as helping with connective tissue. However, ingesting too much sulfur may cause a burning sensation or diarrhea. What are the potential health effects of sulfur dioxide? People often assume that the bad smell of rotten eggs is attributable to sulfur, but it is actually caused by hydrogen sulfide. Studies have documented that organic sulfur can fight cancer (including breast cancer, 4 bladder cancer, 5 and liver cancer 6) by reducing tumor size — without the side effects of chemotherapy. When choosing a supplement, always check the product label to see if it contains any other ingredients. It's important to note that self-treating a condition with sulfur and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences. Sulfur dioxide causes a range of harmful effects on the lungs, as the EPA's most recent review of the science concluded: Wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness and other … All living things need sulphur. Exposure to the toxic chemical may trigger severe respiratory tract irritation, coughing, and shortness of breath. In some cases, a product may also deliver doses that differ from the amount specified on the label. For example, sulfur is needed for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine, which are part of glutathione—a potent antioxidant that helps protect your cells from damage. For most people, high protein foods, such as meats, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs and nuts, are the main source of dietary sulfur. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD006864. Sulfur supports and builds flexible cells in the arteries and veins - the opposite of "hardening of the … Health effects vary and often times sulfur only alters the taste and odor of the water, but consuming too much sulfur can be a real problem. Nutr Metab (Lond). In a 2007 report from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, for instance, scientists sized up seven trials on the use of balneotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis and found that the therapy resulted in significantly greater improvements in pain and quality of life (compared to a placebo). However, some experts believe that it is becoming a growing concern. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Other foods rich in sulfur include garlic, onions, cruciferous vegetables, avocados, tomatoes, mustard, bananas, watermelon and pineapple. However, those who cannot metabolize the amino acid cysteine properly can suffer damage to the kidneys and the eyes due to build-up of cysteine in the tissues. For example, in studies examining sulfur's effects on dandruff, shampoos containing 2% sulfur and 2% salicylic acid were used twice weekly for five weeks. Collagen and keratin—proteins that make up our hair, nails, and skin—rely on sulfur to maintain healthiness. It can cause irritations of the eyes and the throat with animals, when the uptake takes place through inhalation of sulfur in the gaseous phase. Skin & Hair Health. 1 Some proteins contain sulfur in the form of amino acids. 2. The health risks of sulfur dioxide in dried fruit may be severe for those with an allergy or asthma. Sulfur is notorious for its detrimental effects on the respiratory tract. Although poorly studied, sulfur deficiency is thought to be among the factors responsible for growing rates of obesity, chronic fatigue, heart disease, skin problems, allergies and even Alzheimer’s disease. Side Effects. It is especially important for humans because it is part of the amino acid methionine, which is an absolute dietary requirement for us. Sulfur is a mineral involved in various important processes in the body, including making and repairing DNA. 3 Sulfur can kill insects, mites, fungi, and rodents. What Are the Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollution? Sulfur is one of the basic building blocks of vibrant health, essential for maintaining everything from youthful skin and joints to a healthy digestive system. Hydrogen sulfide in water causes no known health effects. Sulfur in a gaseous state mixes with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide, which is hazardous 2. Sulfur is the eighth most abundant chemical in the human body and is necessary for the synthesis of certain essential amino acids. Balneotherapy is an alternative therapy that involves treating health problems by bathing, usually in hot springs and other naturally mineral-rich waters. Inhalation of sulfur fumes causes irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory track, which leads to headaches, dizziness and nausea 2.High levels of sulfur can burn the skin, and it can also cause pulmonary edema, a condition in which the lungs are filled up with fluids 2. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and … So far, research has focused on a few key areas of interest. Sulfur may also be good for your skin and hair. The slime can clog wells, plumbing, and irrigation systems. When sulfur gets into groundwater, naturally occurring bacteria can reduce the organic sulfite ores and produce hydrogen sulfide gas. Sulfur in the body is mostly found in two amino acids – cysteine (including its oxidized form cystine) and methionine. You many see sulfur supplements in capsule form or sold as crystals to be used in the bath. In fact, regardless of the negative effects of sulfur in water, the substance is regularly used to maintain hair and skin health. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-800-232-4636. This is because of dramatic changes in most people’s diets over the past decades, leading to consumption of processed foods that lack sufficient amount of sulfur. Sulfur dioxide irritates the respiratory tract and increases the risk of tract infections. A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis, Evaluating the role of topical therapies in the management of rosacea: focus on combination sodium sulfacetamide and sulfur formulations, Effects of sulfur and salicylic acid in a shampoo base in the treatment of dandruff: a double-blind study using corneocyte counts and clinical grading. Topically applied sulfur may help treat rosacea, according to a 2004 report from the journal Cutis. 2004 Jan;73(1 Suppl):29-33. Is Mud Bath Therapy Effective for Arthritis? Can cause severe irritation of the nose and throat. Strong urine odour and, sometimes, minor gastrointestinal problems including diarrhea and flatulence will be the only symptoms of overdose. Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 95% of the SOx emitted from the combustion of fossil fuel is sulphur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide and other oxides of sulfur have been studied extensively, but many questions remain about the effects of sulfur dioxide on people's health [37]. Possible chronic health effects include cancer, central nervous system disorders, liver and kidney damage, reproductive disorders, and birth defects. 2015;(4):CD000518. ;Children are at higher risk from SO 2 exposure because their lungs are still developing. Cutis. Sulfur seems to have antibacterial effects against the bacteria that cause acne. For the study, 55 patients took either MSM supplements or a placebo every day for 30 days. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Suggested Citation:"4 Health Effects of Sulfur Oxides." Pure sulfur has no smell. J Altern Complement Med. Sulfur is a calcium and potassium antagonist and, therefore, high sulfur intake may also aggravate conditions associated with low calcium and potassium levels. Effects of sulphur on the environment Sulfur can be found in the air in many different forms. But a 2015 report from the same journal looked at trials on the use of balneotherapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and found there was not enough evidence to say for sure that the treatment is effective. Speak to your health care provider if you are considering using a sulfur supplement to treat a medical condition. If taken by mouth, always follow the doctor’s instructions. 1975. Sulfur is notorious for its detrimental effects on the respiratory tract. Brien S, Prescott P, Bashir N, Lewith H, Lewith G. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Side effects not requiring immediate medical attention. If you have asthma, sulfite sensitivity or sulfite allergy, eating dried fruits might cause serious health problems, including breathing problems, life-threatening allergy-like symptoms or, in rare cases, death. How Sulfur Effects Us. Not enough is known about oral supplements to make such a recommendation, though various topical doses have been used in research. Are we getting enough sulfur in our diet? When research studied sulfur treatments for scabies, treatments containing between 2% and 20% sulfur were applied every night for three to six nights. Health Effects of Sulfur. The most common side effect of DMSO and MSM sulfur supplements is stomach irritation. 2007;4:24. Plenty of common foods contain sulfur, such as … Patients with Crohn’s disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease may experience worsening of their condition when consuming a diet high in sulfur. Strong urine odour and, sometimes, minor gastrointestinal problems including diarrhea and flatulence will be the only symptoms of overdose. After taking a dose of sulfur, you may experience nausea, vomiting or appetite loss. Sulfur also aids in the production of glutathione, the body’s key antioxidant. Should You Take Osteo Bi-Flex for Your Joint Pain? Del Rosso JQ. Bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and acute airway obstruction can occur. List of known side effects. Suggested Citation:"4 Health Effects of Sulfur Oxides. Sulfur helps in the creation of collagen. Skin & Hair Health. There's also some evidence that balneotherapy may benefit people with osteoarthritis. Most people consume enough sulfur in their diet to meet the body's needs. Sulfur is present in all living tissues. Information given here is based on the salt content of the medicine. Although no recommended dietary allowances have been established for sulfur, most experts recommend 800-900mg of sulfur per day for adults, 1,200mg per day for pregnant women and 1,500mg per day for patients with osteoarthritis. When sulfur gets into groundwater, naturally occurring bacteria can reduce the organic sulfite ores and produce hydrogen sulfide gas. Sulfur is found in many foods and is considered a vital part of a healthy diet, but too much sulfur in … Sulfur supplements are often used to treat osteoarthritis. doi: 10.17226/10840. Some side effects of sulfur topical may occur that usually do not need medical attention. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. There are some people who are sulfur intolerant. Sulphur Importance For Human, Sources and Side-effects Know what are health benefits and medicinal uses of Sulphur. Results indicated that when subjects used a shampoo containing sulfur and salicylic acid, they reported less scaling and dandruff. Copyright 2021 Healthpedian.org - This Site Provides No Medical Advice -. However, at least one study has suggested that sulfur intake may be insufficient in people over the age of 75. However, both MSM and DMSO may cause certain side effects, such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea. This public health statement tells you about sulfur dioxide and the effects of exposure Arno Kroner, DAOM, LAc, is a board-certified acupuncturist, as well as an herbalist and integrative medicine doctor. There are no officially established dosages for these supplements but people who use MSM should not take more than 6 grams per day (3 grams twice daily), which corresponds to 2 grams of sulfur per day (*). Plenty of common foods contain sulfur, such as eggs and fish. An entry published on the open chemistry database Pub Chem reveals that the harmful chemical is commonly used as a preservative and as a disinfectant for food containers and fermentation equipment. Oral glucosamine sulfate is typically used to treat osteoarthritis and most doctors recommend up to 1.5 grams of GS per day (often alongside 400mg or 0.4 grams of chondroitin sulfate). Likewise, people who inhale sulfur may experience allergic reactions or asthma-like symptoms characterized by … Others also use sulfur supplements for acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, scleroderma, melasma, scabies, wrinkles, stretch marks, faster hair growth and fuller hair, folliculitis, dandruff, bunions, calluses, wound healing, sunburns, allergies, snoring, cataracts, eye inflammation, inflammatory bladder disease, yeast infections, hemorrhoids, periodontal disease, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic constipation. Not enough is known about oral sulfur supplements to be certain they are safe. Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur while taking sulfur topical: 1. It causes coughing, mucus secretion and aggravates conditions such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. Organic sulfur has also been documented to help the body scavenge for free radicals and lower oxidative stress 7 through better glutathione production. 2 Sulfur is an essential nutrient for plants. 3. It's deficiency causes several health problems. 1. It increases flexibility in the tissues within the body and increases blood circulation. Long term exposures to sulfur dioxide concentrations in excess of 2.0 ppm can be expected in some cases to cause minor lung changes. Sulfur is an essential macronutrient which can be found in nearly all human proteins, the building blocks of the body’s tissues and organs. Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control. 2002 Apr;8(2):167-73. Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex. SO 2 is a toxic gas, which is directly harmful to human health. A severe, short-term exposure may cause long-term respiratory effects (e.g., Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)). Talk with your medical provider about sulfur supplement side effects before beginning treatment. ... Side Effects of Excess Sulfur. It also might help promote the loosening and shedding of skin. Other vital roles of sulfur in the body include assisting in carbohydrates metabolism, reducing pain by slowing the nerve impulses that transmit pain signals, ensuring the proper functioning of enzymes, and producing growth hormones and insulin, thus helping to prevent diabetes. While following a diet containing enough sulfur is vital for your health, too much of this mineral may cause a few unpleasant side effects. It is the third most abundant mineral in the human body. It is often combined with salicylic acid. What foods contain sulfur?Sulfur can be found naturally in foods such as dairy, eggs, beef, poultry, seafood, onions, garlic, turnips, kale, and broccoli. Verhagen AP, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Cardoso JR, et al. Are Dead Sea Salts an Effective Treatment for Psoriasis? Antioxidants are vital to combat the damage done to the human body by environmental free radicals. Inhalation: VERY TOXIC, can cause death. Lawther and colleagues (1970) have presented a series of studies in which bronchitic patients attending chest clinics have been asked to … Sulfur dioxide is a colorless but otherwise pungent air pollutant that is highly toxic to both human and environmental health. Published 2007 Nov 6. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-24. Health effects. Sulfur is a chemical element that is present in all living tissues. "National Research Council. Effects of sulfur and salicylic acid in a shampoo base in the treatment of dandruff: a double-blind study using corneocyte counts and clinical grading. What are some alternatives to sulfur for reducing joint pain?Practicing yoga or tai chi and/or undergoing acupuncture may help manage and alleviate arthritis pain and enhance functioning in some people. Respiratory Disorders Verhagen AP, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Boers M, et al. For others, though, sulfur dioxide is safe. Looking at data on the 50 participants who completed the study, researchers found that those assigned to the MSM supplements experienced significantly greater improvements in lower respiratory symptoms compared to members of the placebo group. The Air Quality Assessment Section of Health Canada undertook a health risk assessment of sulphur dioxide (SO 2) in order to update the available information on adverse effects of SO 2 to human health, determine recent Canadian SO 2 exposure levels, and to inform the revision or development of Canadian ambient air quality objectives/standards. Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a colorless gas with a characteristic, irritating, pungent odor. Sulfur dioxide irritates the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Sulfur is absorbed in the small intestine as cysteine or methionine from protein-rich foods. A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Sulfur is a naturally occurring mineral and soaking in sulfur springs water -- though it has an unpleasant smell of rancid eggs – can be traced back to ancient Egyptian and Roman times. Sulfur is available for purchase online and sold in many natural-food stores and in stores specializing in dietary supplements. According to the authors, sulfur-containing lotions and/or cleansers may help enhance the benefits of other topical and oral therapies for rosacea. What Supplements are Best for Joint Pain? These two amino acids bond together with various other amino acids in the body to build proteins. Sulfur is low in toxicity to people. A small study was conducted in 1987 on 48 subjects with dandruff. × Save. Sulfur dioxide affects the respiratory system, particularly lung function, and can irritate the eyes. The amino acid cysteine also contains sulphur. Small particles may penetrate deeply into the lungs and in sufficient quantity can contribute to health problems. By taking an organic sulfur supplement and adding sulfur to your toothpaste or powder, you can cut down on the buildup of plaque and prevent gingivitis, halitosis, and oral cancers as cells in the mouth regenerate and flush out toxins. Sulfur is present in all living tissues. Another high-sulfur protein called keratin is the key structural component of the skin, hair, nails and the tooth enamel. While some people can tolerate sulfite preservatives, others may experience serious side effects. MSM is also referred to as "organic sulfur.". Sulfur is thought to exert it effects on health via its role in anti-inflammatory antioxidant pathways. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. However, there are some reports that MSM and DMSO may cause certain side effects, such as: Sulfur is possibly safe when used topically. It can also cause eye irritation, redness, and tears. Description and Brand Names ; Before Using; Proper Use; Precautions; Side Effects; Products and services. MSM is a naturally occurring organic compound that contains sulfur. Organic sulfur can make a big difference in your oral health. When choosing a supplement, try to look for products that have been certified by ConsumerLabs, the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, or NSF International. It is the third most abundant mineral in the human body. Little research on this has been done since then, and further studies are needed to be certain this treatment is effective. Keep in mind that supplements are largely unregulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. 1975. Health Details: People sensitive to sulfur dioxide include: People with lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema will generally have more serious health effects at higher SO 2 levels. Likewise, there is no established upper limit but most physicians do not recommend more than 3,000mg (3 grams) of sulfur per day (please note that this includes the total amount of sulfur obtained from food and supplements). The body also obtains small amounts of sulfur as inorganic sulfate or in the form of small organic sulfur-based compounds from some fruits, vegetables and other plant foods. Does sulfur smell bad?No. Little is known about the safety of using sulfur-containing supplements. Petroleum products are associated with climate change, pollution, and greenhouse gases. Sulfur dioxide is a colorless but otherwise pungent air pollutant that is highly toxic to both human and environmental health. Sulfur in your water supply is easily recognized by its offensive odor. Exposure to sulfur dioxide may cause irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat. Likewise, people who inhale sulfur may experience allergic reactions or asthma-like symptoms characterized by wheezing and chest tightness. Balneotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Inhalation of sulfur fumes causes irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory track, which leads to headaches, dizziness and nausea 2. 4 Sulfur (Topical Route) Print. However, this is not a serious problem because most people get enough copper from their diets. Some beverages such as tea and cocoa also contain sulfur. Some people also use topical sulfur preparations to manage conditions ranging from dandruff to rosacea. Sulfur is available as a dietary supplement in three major forms: methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glucosamine sulphate (GS). Breathing in sulfur dust can irritate the airways or cause coughing. There is no standard dose of sulfur supplements. There are two major forms of sulfur supplements: MSM, or methylsulfonylmethane, and DMSO, or dimethyl sulfoxide. This corresponds to just 0.1 grams (105mg) of sulfur per day (while chondroitin sulfate adds additional 28mg of sulfur). doi: … Bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and acute airway obstruction can occur. Cathy Wong is a nutritionist and wellness expert. Sulfur is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in over-the-counter dandruff products. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Gas May be Harmful. National Research Council. One of sulfur’s major health benefits is that it has excellent antioxidant effects. Sulfur is a naturally occurring mineral that may be beneficial in the treatment of skin disorders, arthritis and interstitial cystitis, an inflammatory bladder condition. Sulfur supplements (capsules, powders) are taken orally to raise levels of this element, which some believe helps to protect against allergies, osteoarthritis, and muscle soreness. This overview discusses the sources and health effects of the primary pollutant groups--ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), particulates, and other air toxics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2 It should be noted that clinical studies on humans are generally designed to elicit a response and consequently subject study volunteers to challenging … Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation. This page provides basic information about hydrogen sulfide gas and sulfur bacteria and discusses actions that you can take to minimize their effects. Most people cannot overdose on sulfur because its excess amounts are readily excreted through urine. When looking for a sulfur supplement, you are likely to see many MSM products. High levels of sulfur can burn the skin, and it can also cause pulmonary edema, a condition in which the lungs are filled up with fluids 2. Find everything you need to know about Sulfur Topical (Sulfoam), including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. High concentrations of SO 2 can cause inflammation and irritation of the respiratory system, especially during heavy physical activity. Most people cannot overdose on sulfur because its excess amounts are readily excreted through urine. The biggest concern is the long-term side effects of sulfate production. Broad differences in the RR values are found, however. In many cases, the water used in balneotherapy contains sulfur. Exposure to the toxic chemical may trigger severe respiratory tract irritation, coughing, and shortness of breath. It is heavier than air and has a suffocating odour at an atmospheric concentration of around 500 parts per billion (ppb), at which level it can be fatal. However, high concentrations do change the taste of the water. Effects of it can cause irritations of the eyes and the throat with animals when the uptake takes place through inhalation of sulphur … MSM may be of some benefit to people with osteoarthritis of the knee, according to a research review published in the journal Osteoarthritis Cartilage in 2008. Sulfur bacteria produce a slime and can help other bacteria grow, such as iron bacteria. Sulfur has been registered for use in pesticide products in the United States since the 1920s. He operates a private practice in Santa Monica, California. DMSO is usually applied to the skin. Blood Circulation. When sulfur gets into groundwater, naturally occurring bacteria can reduce the organic sulfite ores and produce hydrogen sulfide gas. (The remaining sulfur is present in the cells in the form of sulfates.) This mineral element makes up 0.3% of the body weight, the same as potassium. SO 2 emissions that lead to high concentrations of SO 2 in the air generally also lead to the formation of other sulfur oxides (SO x).). In clinical studies lasting up to eight weeks, participants have safely used products containing sulfur in concentrations of up to 10%. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. These organizations also don't guarantee that a product is safe or effective, but they do provide assurance that the product was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label, and does not contain harmful levels of contaminants. It is also sometimes called dimethyl sulfone, methyl sulfone, sulfonylbismethane, or crystalline dimethyl sulfoxide. Inhaling sulfur may also cause coughing, sneezing or labored breathing 2. This article tells you everything you need to know about sulfur-rich foods. It is important to remove the gas from the water, or vent the gas to the atmosphere. Her work is regularly featured in media such as First For Women, Woman's World, and Natural Health. Cochrane Database. There have been published reports of supplements containing ingredients not disclosed on their labels. Sulfur plays an important role in the body and is necessary for the synthesis of certain key proteins. 1987;39(6):557-61. Sign up now. It … Pure water is tasteless, but water is a strong natural solvent and will dissolve minerals that may give it an odor or flavor. to follow a cohort of people. Inhalation exposure to very low concentrations of sulfur dioxide can aggravate chronic pulmonary diseases, such as asthma and emphysema. * Please note that molecular weight of sulfur is 32 versus 94 for MSM, 78 for DMSO, 456 for glucosamine sulfate and 463 for chondroitin sulfate, whereas each of these compounds contains only one atom of sulfur with atom weight of 32. 2008 Nov;16(11):1277-88. Few epidemiological studies have been able to differentiate adequately the effects of individual pollutants because sulfur oxides tend to occur in the same kinds of atmospheres as particulate matter and high humidity. Even a small amount of sulfite can wreak health havoc if you're sensitive to it. The human body can make cysteine (provided there is a steady supply of sulfur) whereas methionine can only be obtained from food. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) are types of sulfur supplements. Due to the limited number of high-quality clinical trials, it's too soon to recommend sulfur-containing supplements, topically applied sulfur, or balneotherapy for the treatment of any health condition. Sulfur dioxide is one type of sulfite, a preservative whose name might be more familiar. Sections. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. (The remaining sulfur is present in the cells in the form of sulfates.) These side effects may g… Effects of Sulphur Oxides Human Beings. Certain highly sensitive asthmatics may develop bronchospasm when exposed to sulfur dioxide or sulfite-preserved foods. Oral Health. MSM supplements may help alleviate allergy symptoms, according to a small, older study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in 2002. Hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) can occur in wells anywhere in Minnesota, and gives the water a characteristic rotten egg taste or odor. In this study, we performed an analysis of these …